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1.4.8: Visual Presentation: (AAA)

Note: To find more information on items such as G14: for example, visit the "Understanding"link at the bottom of each Guideline

For the visual presentation of blocks of text, a mechanism is available to achieve the following: (Level AAA)

  • 1.foreground and background colors can be selected by the user
  • 2.width is no more than 80 characters or glyphs (40 if CJK)
  • 3.text is not justified (aligned to both the left and the right margins)
  • 4.line spacing (leading) is at least space-and-a-half within paragraphs, and paragraph spacing is at least 1.5 times larger than the line spacing
  • 5.text can be resized without assistive technology up to 200 percent in a way that does not require the user to scroll horizontally to read a line of text on a full-screen window

Sufficient Techniques for 1.4.8 – Visual Presentation

Instructions: Since this is a multi-part success criterion, you must satisfy one of the numbered items for each of the requirements below.

First Requirement:

Techniques to ensure foreground and background colors can be selected by the user

  • 1.C23: Specifying text and background colors of secondary content such as banners, features and navigation in CSS while not specifying text and background colors of the main content (CSS) OR
  • 2.C25: Specifying borders and layout in CSS to delineate areas of a Web page while not specifying text and text-background colors (CSS) OR
  • 3.G156: Using a technology that has commonly-available user agents that can change the foreground and background of blocks of text OR
  • 4.G148: Not specifying background color, not specifying text color, and not using technology features that change those defaults OR
  • 5.G175: Providing a multi color selection tool on the page for foreground and background colors

Second Requirement:

Techniques to ensure width is no more than 80 characters or glyphs (40 if CJK)

  • 1.H87: Not interfering with the user agent’s reflow of text as the viewing window is narrowed (HTML) OR
  • 2.C20: Using relative measurements to set column widths so that lines can average 80 characters or less when the browser is resized (CSS)

Third Requirement:

Techniques to ensure text is not justified (aligned to both the left and the right margins)

  • 1.C19: Specifying alignment either to the left OR right in CSS (CSS) OR
  • 2.G172: Providing a mechanism to remove full justification of text OR
  • 3.G169: Aligning text on only one side

Fourth Requirement:

Techniques to ensure line spacing (leading) is at least space-and-a-half within paragraphs, and paragraph spacing is at least 1.5 times larger than the line spacing

  • 1.G188: Providing a button on the page to increase line spaces and paragraph spaces OR
  • 2.C21: Specifying line spacing in CSS (CSS)

Fifth Requirement:

Techniques to ensure text can be resized without assistive technology up to 200 percent in a way that does not require the user to scroll horizontally to read a line of text on a full-screen window

  • 1.Not interfering with the user agent’s reflow of text as the viewing window is narrowed OR
  • 2.G146: Using liquid layout AND using measurements that are relative to other measurements in the content by using one or more of the following techniques:
  • C12: Using percent for font sizes (CSS) OR
  • C13: Using named font sizes (CSS) OR
  • C14: Using em units for font sizes (CSS) OR
  • C24: Using percentage values in CSS for container sizes (CSS) OR
  • SCR34: Calculating size and position in a way that scales with text size (Scripting) OR
  • 3.C26: Providing options within the content to switch to a layout that does not require the user to scroll horizontally to read a line of text (CSS)

Advisory Techniques for 1.4.8 – Visual Presentation

  • Using a hover effect to highlight a paragraph, list items, or table cells (HTML, CSS)
  • Presenting text in sans serif font or providing a mechanism to achieve this (CSS)
  • Using vertical (bulleted or numbered) lists rather than inline lists
  • Using upper and lower case according to the spelling conventions of the text language
  • Providing large fonts by default
  • Avoiding the use of text in raster images
  • Avoiding scaling font sizes smaller than the user-agent default
  • Providing sufficient inter-column spacing
  • Avoiding centrally aligned text
  • Avoiding chunks of italic text
  • Avoiding overuse of different styles on individual pages and in sites
  • Making links visually distinct
  • Providing expandable bullets
  • Show/hide bullet points
  • Putting an em-space or two spaces after sentences

Failures for SC 1.4.8 – Visual Presentation

  • F24: Failure of Success Criterion 1.4.3, 1.4.6 and 1.4.8 due to specifying foreground colors without specifying background colors or vice versa
  • F88: Failure of SC 1.4.8 due to using text that is justified (aligned to both the left and the right margins)

http://www.w3.org/TR/UNDERSTANDING-WCAG20/visual-audio-contrast-visual-presentation.html

Conformance

See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/ for more detail.

This section lists requirements for conformance to WCAG 2.0. It also gives information about how to make conformance claims, which are optional. Finally, it describes what it means to be accessibility supported, since only accessibility-supported ways of using technologies can be relied upon for conformance.

Understanding Conformance includes further explanation of the accessibility-supported concept.

Conformance Requirements

In order for a Web page to conform to WCAG 2.0, all of the following conformance requirements must be satisfied:

1. Conformance Level:

One of the following levels of conformance is met in full.

  • Level A: For Level A conformance (the minimum level of conformance), the Web page satisfies all the Level A Success Criteria, or a conforming alternate version is provided.
  • Level AA: For Level AA conformance, the Web page satisfies all the Level A and Level AA Success Criteria, or a Level AA conforming alternate version is provided.
  • Level AAA: For Level AAA conformance, the Web page satisfies all the Level A, Level AA and Level AAA Success Criteria, or a Level AAA conforming alternate version is provided.

Note 1: Although conformance can only be achieved at the stated levels, authors are encouraged to report (in their claim) any progress toward meeting success criteria from all levels beyond the achieved level of conformance.

Note 2: It is not recommended that Level AAA conformance be required as a general policy for entire sites because it is not possible to satisfy all Level AAA Success Criteria for some content.

2. Full pages:

Conformance (and conformance level) is for full Web page(s) only, and cannot be achieved if part of a Web page is excluded.

Note 1: For the purpose of determining conformance, alternatives to part of a page's content are considered part of the page when the alternatives can be obtained directly from the page, e.g., a long description or an alternative presentation of a video.

Note 2: Authors of Web pages that cannot conform due to content outside of the author's control may consider a Statement of Partial Conformance.

3. Complete processes:

When a Web page is one of a series of Web pages presenting a process (i.e., a sequence of steps that need to be completed in order to accomplish an activity), all Web pages in the process conform at the specified level or better. (Conformance is not possible at a particular level if any page in the process does not conform at that level or better.)

Example: An online store has a series of pages that are used to select and purchase products. All pages in the series from start to finish (checkout) conform in order for any page that is part of the process to conform.

4. Only Accessibility-Supported Ways of Using Technologies:

Only accessibility-supported ways of using technologies are relied upon to satisfy the success criteria. Any information or functionality that is provided in a way that is not accessibility supported is also available in a way that is accessibility supported. (See Understanding accessibility support.)

5. Non-Interference:

If technologies are used in a way that is not accessibility supported, or if they are used in a non-conforming way, then they do not block the ability of users to access the rest of the page. In addition, the Web page as a whole continues to meet the conformance requirements under each of the following conditions:

  • 1.when any technology that is not relied upon is turned on in a user agent,
  • 2.when any technology that is not relied upon is turned off in a user agent, and
  • 3.when any technology that is not relied upon is not supported by a user agent

In addition, the following success criteria apply to all content on the page, including content that is not otherwise relied upon to meet conformance, because failure to meet them could interfere with any use of the page:

  • 1.4.2 - Audio Control,
  • 2.1.2 - No Keyboard Trap,
  • 2.3.1 - Three Flashes or Below Threshold, and
  • 2.2.2 - Pause, Stop, Hide.

Note: If a page cannot conform (for example, a conformance test page or an example page), it cannot be included in the scope of conformance or in a conformance claim.

For more information, including examples, see Understanding Conformance Requirements.

Conformance Claims (Optional)

Conformance is defined only for Web pages. However, a conformance claim may be made to cover one page, a series of pages, or multiple related Web pages.

Required Components of a Conformance Claim

Conformance claims are not required. Authors can conform to WCAG 2.0 without making a claim. However, if a conformance claim is made, then the conformance claim must include the following information:

  • 1. Date of the claim
  • 2. Guidelines title, version and URI "Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 at http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-WCAG20-20081211/"
  • 3. Conformance level satisfied: (Level A, AA or AAA)
  • 4. A concise description of the Web pages, such as a list of URIs for which the claim is made, including whether subdomains are included in the claim.Note 1: The Web pages may be described by list or by an expression that describes all of the URIs included in the claim. Note 2: Web-based products that do not have a URI prior to installation on the customer's Web site may have a statement that the product would conform when installed.
  • 5.A list of the Web content technologies relied upon.

Note: If a conformance logo is used, it would constitute a claim and must be accompanied by the required components of a conformance claim listed above.

Optional Components of a Conformance Claim

In addition to the required components of a conformance claim above, consider providing additional information to assist users. Recommended additional information includes:

  • A list of success criteria beyond the level of conformance claimed that have been met. This information should be provided in a form that users can use, preferably machine-readable metadata.
  • A list of the specific technologies that are "used but not relied upon."
  • A list of user agents, including assistive technologies that were used to test the content.
  • Information about any additional steps taken that go beyond the success criteria to enhance accessibility.
  • A machine-readable metadata version of the list of specific technologies that are relied upon.
  • A machine-readable metadata version of the conformance claim.

Note 1: Refer to Understanding Conformance Claims for more information and example conformance claims.

Note 2: Refer to Understanding Metadata for more information about the use of metadata in conformance claims.

Statement of Partial Conformance - Third Party Content

Sometimes, Web pages are created that will later have additional content added to them. For example, an email program, a blog, an article that allows users to add comments, or applications supporting user-contributed content. Another example would be a page, such as a portal or news site, composed of content aggregated from multiple contributors, or sites that automatically insert content from other sources over time, such as when advertisements are inserted dynamically.

In these cases, it is not possible to know at the time of original posting what the uncontrolled content of the pages will be. It is important to note that the uncontrolled content can affect the accessibility of the controlled content as well. Two options are available:

  • 1.A determination of conformance can be made based on best knowledge. If a page of this type is monitored and repaired (non-conforming content is removed or brought into conformance) within two business days, then a determination or claim of conformance can be made since, except for errors in externally contributed content which are corrected or removed when encountered, the page conforms. No conformance claim can be made if it is not possible to monitor or correct non-conforming content; OR
  • 2.A "statement of partial conformance" may be made that the page does not conform, but could conform if certain parts were removed. The form of that statement would be, "This page does not conform, but would conform to WCAG 2.0 at level X if the following parts from uncontrolled sources were removed." In addition, the following would also be true of uncontrolled content that is described in the statement of partial conformance:
    • a.It is not content that is under the author's control.
    • b.It is described in a way that users can identify (e.g., they cannot be described as "all parts that we do not control" unless they are clearly marked as such.)

Statement of Partial Conformance - Language

A "statement of partial conformance due to language" may be made when the page does not conform, but would conform if accessibility support existed for (all of) the language(s) used on the page. The form of that statement would be, "This page does not conform, but would conform to WCAG 2.0 at level X if accessibility support existed for the following language(s):"